From utilitarianism philosophy to realism (neo-realism)

From professional sports, if it’s possible to single out a certain sport (handball), the perception of general population is complemented by a sport stakeholder view and reflected in the Gasset’s State and utility theory:

“The first house built by man is not a home for the family, still nonexistent, but a casino for a young man. Here they prepare for their expeditions and perform their rituals; here they indulge in chanting, drinking, and wild banquets. Whether we approve of it or not, the club is older than the family, the casino is older than the domestic hearth.”[1]


Gasset argumentation carried out by utility theory is hardly sufficient to disclose Olympic movement in Montenegro and without welcoming broader clarifications would not provide an answer which could be a starting point to restore a sporting system or perception of it from 80s, having in mind overall socio-economical-political constellation in the country. The reality of the Olympic movement on the ground in Montenegro tends to be more in correlation with realism, but not one from medieval philosophy (such as Anselm of Canterbury), the one (political) still existing (evolving) from Thucydides through Machiavelli all the way to the structural perception of realism at Kenneth Waltz.[2] Realism, driven by self-interest, found a perfect soil (Montenegro), after crash of socialist country in period of transition (still ongoing process). Situation where you don’t have a central authority, economic differences between citizens means fertile soil for entering private owners into state oriented sport institutions in order to increase their power (read influence) to the maximum.

Situation with no categorization of sports and no clear criteria for funding and overall support for sport, it’s an open space for manipulation. One of the most obvious examples is constellation inside national sports federations. During socialist times, sports organization-clubs (founding members of national federations) were in the public ownership (not state). In the last decade, most of those clubs were privatized by individuals with little or no sport background. As an endgame, national sport federations nowadays are unity of individual clubs owners, very often neglecting basic legal obligation of sport statute’s which is development of mass participation, promotion of education and healthy lifestyle through sport. Previously mentioned constellation within the Montenegrin Olympic Movement resulted in establishing NOC of Montenegro as union of all national sports federations working as central sports organization (umbrella) but without any instruments (commissions) to coordinate or to control legal obligations of federations.[3]

[1] Ibid., p.29.

[2] For better understanding of the paragraph see also: Anselm of Canterbury, The Major Works, Oxford World Classics) edited by Brian Davies and Gill Evans, (1998);, Thucydides, History of Peleponnesian War, Croatian Matica, Zagreb (2009).,Machiavelli Niccolo, Il Principe, edited by L. Arthur Burd, Oxford (1891)., Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics, University of California, Berkley (1979).

[3] See Statute (only Montenegrin version) at:

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