Montenegrin Olympic Movement and social media

Sport is seen as a vital part of Montenegrin indentity. Purpose of this paper is to examine use or position of social media within the Montenegrin Olympic Movement. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee is, by Law on Sport and by perception of general population, considered the main sport actor in Montenegro, gathering all National Sport Federations as constituents of the MOC. The role of the MOC is to promote Olympic values and to prepare through four year strategy teams/individuals to represent Montenegro during competition based on IOC programme. The question is how Montenegrin Olympic Movement utilizes social media for enabling conditions for the sport to be an activity of public interest? In the Montenegrin Law on Sport, sport is defined as an activity of public interest. Montenegrin Olympic Committee is recognized, as the key implementing organization for activities of public interest through sport. Promotion of Olympic values through OVEP, high performance development and athlete’s preparation for Olympic Games, sport for development, talent identification development, ant doping, good governance system, are considered as core activities of the Montenegrin Olympic Committee.[1]


Olympic Games in China are considered as Web 2.0 Olympic Games.[1] To the Games in London and the creation of the Olympic Hub, the use of social media among sports professionals and organizations experienced a boom. Among Montenegrins, only Milivoj Dukic (sailing) was active via the Olympic Hub.[2] On the other hand, only several NSFs (football, handball, basketball and water polo) are active via Facebook[3], and none of the national umbrella sports organizations are active on Twitter.[4]


Regarding the use of computer in Montenegro, 53,2% of the population between 16-74 yrs of age are active. Once that are using internet are 49% from which 76,6% are using regularly (every day).[1] Based on research ‘’Mediji i nove tehnologije’’, conducted by Ipsos Strategic Marketing, internet users are mostly oriented on using social media sites (59%), web search (54%), reading news (44%) and watching online TV (9%).[2]

Sport plays a very important role of Montenegrin overall identity, especially in times where economic crises tremendously increased gap between classes with negative effects on socialization of the vulnerable populations. With these negative outcomes, sports organizations tended to follow organizational structure of other governmental organizations. In his work, Chifflet defines three different types of organizational cultures of sport governing bodies: the association culture of the elected volunteer executives, which is based on the federal values of amateurism and volunteering; the public service culture of public servants, who are placed at different levels within the federation formally, Montenegrin sport organizations tend to follow the public service organizational model because there are predominantly governed/financed from the central state authorities.),and the managerial culture of managers and experts, which is based on meritocracy, performance and profitability.[3] That said, not many studies have addressed issues related to sport organizations from a relational perspective.[4] Traditionally, sport organizations have had difficulty maintaining contacts and interacting on an ongoing basis with their customers.[5]

Organizations are increasingly focusing their marketing efforts beyond creating a single exchange to building long-term relationships with their customers.[1] Integrated marketing communications goes to total communications, then to international communications and develops to globally integrate marketing communication through new social media and other concepts of communication.[2] Many companies nowadays develop strategies for globally integrated marketing communications.[3]

National Sport Federation is responsible for implementation of competent sports rules adopted in accordance within international documents and the Montenegrin Law on Sports.[4] Based on the mentioned law, articles 61 and 62 define Montenegrin Olympic Committee as the federation of all national sports federations (non-Olympic sports as well). Strategy and action plans depend on the NOC of Montenegro General Assembly comprised by various representatives of Sports Movement (national sports federation representatives).[5] The main mission of Montenegrin Olympic Committee is promotion of Olympic values through OVEP, high performance development and athlete’s preparation for Olympic Games, sport for development, talent identification development, ant doping, good governance system, are considered as core activities of the Montenegrin Olympic Committee. For implementing MOC strategy, it is important to note that content in new media is a mixture of entertainment, journalism and marketing (very big portion of it) which promotes consumption ideology.[6] Also important to note, the goal (read mission) of the IOC and surrounding sponsors is to turn the world into a big spectator place, and thus to make a bigger profit.[7] Sport and the media must surely be the most potent combination of forces amongst the key factors in the globalization game, having a unique synergy.[8] At the national (Montenegrin) level, majority of marketing promotion activities of MOC and NSF is done primarily via TV and daily newspaper (where they have specific coverage of sporting events). Without going into the evaluation of the quality of the overall strategic approach of the London 2012 Strategy, for the object of this paper, document didn’t adequately treated approach to media as well as the use of social media as a powerful tool in promoting strategic framework of the Montenegrin Olympic Committee. Bearing in mind the above, it could be stated that the MOC relies primarily on traditional approach with roots from the state oriented sport system and organizational culture well defined by Chifflet.

Concluding remarks

One of the previous blogs showed an importance of use of relationship management theory which explains that managing “organizational public relationships” around similar interests will ultimately lead to a mutually beneficial interaction between involved entities.[9] Within sports communication, establishing effective relationships between sport stakeholders and consumers is essential. This two-way relation is necessary continuously to improve in order to prevent from becoming ineffective. Researches argue that effective marketing and communications strategies are steering away from traditional approaches of promotion, and turning to social media as a dependable source.[10] Therefore, there is a significant increase usage of social media within sport movement on the one hand, and decline involvement of traditional media (TV or newspaper) on the other hand.[11] Clearly, with use of social media, sport stakeholders are more in control over quality of press release, using their influence to promote their activities. Often, they act as a producer of the content for the public.[12] The Montenegrin Olympic Movement showed lack of social media involvement, especially in the process of implementing the MOCs strategy/mission. The sport system in Montenegro still remains strong basis of communication within audience through traditional media. Sports stakeholders must understand the needs of consumers for information, and necessity to clearly frame their messages in order to meet objectivities and to be competitive with respect to other existing content.

[1] Kotler, P. (2011). In Peppers, D., & Rogers, M. (Eds.), Managing customer relationships: A strategic framework (pp. 11–14). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


[2] Zugic, J., Janicic, R. (2013), ’’Media Globalization and Marketing Communications’’, Medijski Dijalozi, No. 17, p.79.

[3] Larry, P. (2008), ’’Strategic Integrated Marketing Communication’’, Elsevier Inc., Canada.

[4] Law on Sports, Off.  Gazette, No. 36/2011. July, 2011.

[6] Halverson, E. R., Halverson, R. (2008), Fantasy baseball: The case for competitive fandom. Games and Culture 3, 3-4: 286-308.

[7] Billings, A. (2007), Olympic media: Inside the biggest show on television. New York: Routledge.

[8] Davies, R., (2002), Media power and responsibility in sport globalisation. Presentation made to the Third International Conference for Media Professionals in a Globalised Sport World, Copenhagen.

[9] Ledingham, J.A. (2003) “Explicating Relationship Management as a General Theory of Public Relations.” Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 181-198.

[10] Mangold, W.G. & Faulds, D.J. (2009). “Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix.” Business Horizons, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 357-365.

[11] Rothschild, P.C. (2011). “Social media use in sports and entertainment venues.” International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 139-150.

[12] Sanderson, J., & Kassing, J. W. (2011). Tweets and blogs. In A. Billings (Ed.), Sports Media (pp. 114-127). New York: Routledge

[1] Zavod za statistiku. (2011), ’’Informaciono komunikaciona tehnologija’’, Podgorica.

[2] Ipsos Strategic Marketing (2011), ’’Nove Tehnologije-Crna Gore’’, Podgorica.

[3] Chifflet, P. (1993). Associations de sportifs ou enterprises du sport. In A. Loret (Ed.), Sport and Management. Paris: Dunod.


[4] Harvery, J., Lévesque, M., & Donnelly, P. (2007). Sport Volunteerism and Social Capital.

Sociology of Sport Journal, 24(2), 206-223.

[5] Rein, I.J., Kotler, P., & Shields, B. (2006). The elusive fan: Reinventing sports in a crowded marketplace. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill


[1] Hutchins, B and Mikosza, J. (2010), ‘The Web 2.0 Olympics: Athlete Blogging, Social Networking and Policy Contradictions at the 2008 Beijing Games’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 16 (3), 279-97.

[1] London 2012 Strategy. Document adopted in 2008, after Bejing Olympics. Only Montenegrin version: accessed on: 22 of December, 2013. 

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